Day 1 :
United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, USA
Time : 09:30-10:00
Indira T Kudva is a Research Microbiologist and Lead Scientist at the National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Ames, Iowa. She has received her BSc in Zoology and MSc in Medical Microbiology degrees from India, PhD in Microbiology, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry from the University of Idaho and trained as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Idaho, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School. She has over 25 years of experience in the field of microbiology, molecular biology and infectious diseases. She has 29 peer-reviewed publications, 3 invited reviews, 27 meeting abstracts, 18 invited talks, 8 funded grants and novel inventions (4 patent applications). She is also an adjunct Assistant Professor at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University; the Executive Editor for the “Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens” book, 5th Edition, ASM press and is on the Editorial Boards of the Applied and Environmental Microbiology (ASM press) and the SRL Proteomics and Bioinformatics (SciRes Literature) journals.
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause hemorrhagic colitis and potentially fatal extra-intestinal sequelae, such as the hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in humans. Currently, treatment of human STEC disease is only symptomatic and supportive. Antibiotics are contraindicated owing to increased risk of sequelae; hence, diverse new STEC-specific management modalities are being investigated including those that that target STEC bacteria, interfere with Shiga toxin (Stx) binding, neutralize Stx, inhibit Stx trafficking, modulate /interfere with host cellular responses to Stx, effect homeostasis of host microbiota (probiotics), and virulence factor-based vaccines. Because ruminants (cattle and sheep) are primary STEC reservoirs, several preharvest control strategies to reduce pathogen load and prevent STEC entry into the food chain are being implemented. These include: Water treatment, dietary strategies, water and feed additives, animal treatments and management and transportation practices. However, these strategies have variable or limited efficacy owing to diverse hosts/environments maintaining STEC on farms, further emphasizing the need for control measures that can be consistently employed. Hence, we are employing host specific studies and pathogen-directed systems-based approaches towards the development of such novel STEC-targeted modalities. These include, elucidating the “interactome” of STEC and the squamous epithelial cells constituting the rectoanal junction (the site of persistence in cattle) and evaluating O157 proteins expressed in the rumen (first compartment of the ruminant stomach). Proteins contributing to cell adherence and rumen survival are being investigated for inclusion in novel anti-adhesion/colonization therapies.
Nanorx Inc, USA
Time : 10:00-10:30
P R Raghavan is the CEO of Nanorx Inc, USA. He has completed his PhD in Organic Chemistry from Oregon State University (1979) and MS in Chemistry (1972) from IIT Mumbai, India. He has worked on drug discovery for over 25 years at Columbia University, Max-Planck Institute, Germany, Ciba-Geigy (now Novartis) and Boehringer Ingelheim’.
Metadichol® is a nano emulsion of long-chain alcohols found in many foods. It is commonly called Policosanol and is present in foods such as rice, sugar cane, wheat, peanuts Metadichol® acts on Nuclear Vitamin D receptors (VDR) that are present in cells throughout the body to stimulate the immune system and inhibit a variety of disease processes, resulting from viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. Gene expression analysis will be presented. We tested Metadichol® in vitro against viruses and also against malaria, Tb and MRSA. It is the first of a class of unique nano emulsion molecules that are active against viruses, bacteria and parasites. In assays, Metadichol® showed no cytotoxicity and strongly inhibited cell death caused by each of the pathogen tested. Metadichol® is a safe and effective inhibitor of various pathogens in humans. Because it consists of natural components of common foods and has no known negative side effects, Metadichol® has the potential to serve as a novel, broad-spectrum antiviral treatment for viruses, bacteria and parasites that confront public health today.
Dutch Armed Forces/Royal Dutch Navy, Netherlands
Time : 10:30-11:00
Stef Stienstra is a strategic and creative Consultant in Biomedical Science with a parallel career as a Commander of the Reserve of the Royal Dutch Navy. For the Dutch Armed Forces he has responsibility for the counter measures in CBNRe threats and (medical) consequence management both in a military and a civilian (terrorism) setting. In his civil career he works internationally as a Consultant or as Scientific Supervisory Board Member for several medical and biotech companies, merely involved in biodefense. He is also a Visiting Professor for Punjab University in Pakistan and Rhein-Waal University in Germany. He has completed his studies in Medicine and in Biochemistry at the University of Groningen in Netherlands and has extensive practical experience in cell biology, immuno-hematology, biodefense and transfusion medicine.
Background: Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease that is caused by obligate intra macrophage protozoa of the Leishmania species. Leishmaniasis can cause different clinical syndromes including cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), in which the patient generally presents with one or several ulcers or nodules on the skin, resulting from the infection of phagocytic cells located in the dermis. It often results into severe scar tissue in the skin. Most of the twelve million people infected with Leishmania worldwide are CL cases and 1.5 million new cases occur annually.
Objective: WHO has a program to develop new treatments for cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study establishes a proof of concept that a tattoo device can target intra dermal drug delivery against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL).
Methods: The selected drug is oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) formulated as liposomes, particles known to be prone to macrophage ingestion. First it is shown that treatment of cultured Leishmania infected macrophages with OlPC liposomes results in a direct dose dependent killing of intracellular parasites. Based on this, in vivo efficacy is demonstrated using a 10 day tattooing mediated treatment in mice infected with L. major and L. mexicana. In both models this regimen results in rapid clinical recovery with complete regression of skin lesions by Day 28. Parasite counts and histopathology examination confirm high treatment efficacy at the parasitic level. Low amount of drug required for tattooing combined with fast clinical recovery may have a positive impact on CL patient management.
Results: This first example of tattoo mediated drug delivery could open to new therapeutic interventions in the treatment of skin diseases. This study demonstrates that the use of a tattoo instrument for drug delivery is possible in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and that this method can successfully eliminate intracellular parasites at the site of infection. After showing that the selected drug oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) formulated as liposomes could efficiently reach intracellular parasites when in contact with infected macrophages, the activity of the drug was compared in vivo in mouse models of Old (L. major) and New World (L. mexicana) leishmaniasis. Three routes of administrations of the same drug formulation were investigated: Systemic (IP) administration, topical administration as a drop and administration via the tattoo instrument. Evaluation parameters included clinical (lesion sizes) and parasitological parameters (burdens) using quantitative and qualitative methods. In all experiments, the tattooing delivery procedure was the most efficacious at both the clinical and parasitological levels.
Limitations: The used tattoo device, used routinely for permanent makeup procedures is not yet optimal for quantitative drug delivery.
University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania
Time : 11:15-11:45
Lia Monica Junie is an MD, Ph D, Professor, Head Microbiology Department, "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj Napoca, Romania. She is a Coordinator of resident doctor’s in the Laboratory Medicine specialty and Leadership PhD doctor’s thesis in Medicine field. She is a Board Member of European professional Societies ESCMID (ESGCP Study Groups), Society of Chemotherapy, Scientia Parasitologica Pro Vita and is a Reviewer of international reviews, Member of International organizations, Director/Coordinator in research projects. She has more than 63 papers published in full in international journals and is an editorial board member of national reviews. She is an Organizer/President, Keynote, Invited Speaker and Chair of International and National Congresses.
Background: Methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were identified shortly upon the introduction of methicillin into the clinical practice. Rapid detection of MRSA is desirable.
Methods: S. aureus strains were isolated from hospitalized patients, including intensive care wards and other units. The identification of the S. aureus strains was made by phenotypic methods and automated methods (Vitek2Compact BioMerieux). The MecA gene of the clinical isolates detection has been unfold by PCR. The PBP2’ latex agglutination test, Cefoxitin E-test and Oxacillin MIC as phenotypic methods of MRSA detection are evaluated and compared with the mecA detection by PCR, as the standard method to identify the MRSA strains.
Results: 57.5% of the isolated strains from different pathological products were MRSA and 42.5% were MSSA. The PBP2’ latex agglutination test detected PBP2a in 55.3% of the tested strains leading to a sensitivity of 96.3% using mec A gene detection. Most of the MRSA isolates were multi-resistant to antibiotics, being resistant to b-lactamins, Aminoglycosides, Macrolides and Ciprofloxacin.
Conclusions: Molecular methods which detect the mecA gene are replacing the Oxacillin MIC method as the reference one. The comparison of the phenotypic methods with PCR reveals that among the first of them, PBP2a latex has a high sensitivity (97.9%), being used as an alternative phenotypic method for the MRSA detection. Following the resistance profiles of the strains, identified by these methods, we observe the existence among them of some different clones that reveal the importance of the correct identification of the MRSA strains for the infection therapy and its prophylaxis.